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DEHUMANIZATION                           59

any sort is impossible. Left alone, the democratic
element becomes inert and conservative—it must
of necessity be combined with the aristocratic
and monarchial, not in the sense of a monarchy,
but of one person, like a president or other
leader with real power. But this does not at
all imply a dictated world-view.

It is amazing that the modern dictatorship of
ideas is not at all connected with real spiritual
unity and with some world-view which actually
exists, and with which the masses are as saturated
as in the past they were impregnated with the
Christian faith. Unity of belief is dictated by
the authority of the state. The state feels the
need of creating a spiritual unity, the need to
unify its whole human constituency. It is absurd
to think that the whole popular mass in Russia is
penetrated by Marxian theory, or that in Germany
by the racial theories of Gobineau and Chamber-
lain, A dictatorship must create a unity of ideas.
In this connection Communism is better off than
most dictatorships, since the Marxian theory
exists and offers a real system of thought which
can be adopted. Fascism not so well off. The
modern dictatorship of ideas is based on the
assumption that the spiritual life may be dealt
with on exactly the same basis as the material
life, that the spirit and thought and the creative-
ness of culture are susceptible to the same sort